In recent years, the United States has been working to reduce its dependency on China for various imports, citing concerns over security threats, human rights, and China’s dominance in critical industries. However, evidence suggests that despite efforts to cut ties with China, the two economies remain deeply interconnected. While the global manufacturing and supply chains are still evolving due to factors such as tariffs and restrictions, studies show that the United States continues to rely on Chinese production indirectly through other countries.
Although China’s share of imports into the United States has decreased, other low-cost countries like Vietnam and Mexico have seen their shares increase. The Biden administration has been promoting domestic manufacturing incentives, resulting in a rise in semiconductor, electric car, and solar panel production in the United States. However, research presented at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City’s annual conference suggests that American supply chains still heavily depend on Chinese production, albeit through intermediate countries.
While some view the shift away from China as positive, the reshuffling of supply chains has led to higher prices for goods. A decrease in the share of imports from China has caused prices on Vietnamese imports to rise by 9.8%, and Mexican imports by 3.2%. The impact of these price increases on consumer inflation requires further research, but it is clear that the dependence on China has not diminished significantly.
Other studies have also shown that tariffs imposed by the Trump administration have affected trade and reduced U.S. imports of specific goods from China. However, countries like Vietnam, Mexico, and Taiwan, which already specialize in producing those goods, have captured the market share lost by China. Interestingly, these countries have also increased their imports from China in the same product categories that they export to the United States.
The implications of these supply chain shifts for the United States’ efforts to bring manufacturing back are uncertain. However, economists at the annual conference in Jackson Hole argue against the idea of overall deglobalization. The world remains interconnected despite geopolitical tensions, and trade fragmentation may lead to product shortages.
The ongoing changes in global sourcing will be closely monitored as geopolitical tensions and economic troubles in China may further impact global supply chains. Economists are questioning whether the economic benefits of reshoring factories to the United States and allied countries will outweigh the costs, such as higher consumer prices. It is also emphasized that the costs of reshoring have not been adequately considered by the government and others, as globalization has contributed to low inflation through the import of lower-cost goods and improved productivity.